Database Management

What is DBMS?[]

software primarily functions as an interface between the end user and the database, simultaneously managing the data, the database engine, and the database schema in order to facilitate the organization and manipulation of data.

Though functions of DBMS vary greatly, general-purpose DBMS features and capabilities should include: a user accessible catalog describing metadata, DBMS library management system, data abstraction and independence, data security, logging and auditing of activity, support for concurrency and transactions, support for authorization of access, access support from remote locations, DBMS data recovery support in the event of damage, and enforcement of constraints to ensure the data follows certain rules.

A database schema design technique that functions to increase clarity in organizing data is referred to as normalization. Normalization in DBMS modifies an existing schema to minimize redundancy and dependency of data by splitting a large table into smaller tables and defining the relationship between them. DBMS Output is a built-in package SQL in DBMS that enables the user to display debugging information and output, and send messages from subprograms, packages, PL/SQL blocks, and triggers. Oracle originally developed the DBMS File Transfer package, which provides procedures to copy a binary file within a database or to transfer a binary file between databases.

A database management system functions through the use of system commands, first receiving instructions from a database administrator in DBMS, then instructing the system accordingly, either to retrieve data, modify data, or load existing data from the system. Popular DBMS examples include cloud-based database management systems, in-memory database management systems (IMDBMS), columnar database management systems (CDBMS), and NoSQL in DBMS.


A relational database management system (RDBMS) refers to a collection of programs and capabilities that is designed to enable the user to create, update, and administer a relational database, which is characterized by its structuring of data into logically independent tables. There are several features that distinguish a Relational DBMS from a DBMS, including:

  • Structure: Where data is structured in hierarchical form in a DBMS, data is structured in tabular form in a RDBMS.
  • User capacity: A RDBMS is capable of operating with multiple users. DBMS can only manage one user at a time.
  • Software/hardware requirements: A RDBMS has greater software and hardware requirements.
  • Programs managed: DBMS maintains databases within the computer network and system hard disks. A RDBMS manages the relationships between its incorporated tables of data.
  • Data capacity: A DBMS is capable of managing small amounts of data and a RDBMS can manage an unlimited amount of data.
  • Distributed databases: A DBMS does not provide support for distributed databases while a RDBMS does.
  • ACID implementation: A RDBMS bases the structure of its data on the ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and Durability) model.

Difference Between Data and Information in DBMS[]

Data is raw, unprocessed, unorganized facts that are seemingly random and do not yet carry any significance or meaning. Information refers to data that has been organized, interpreted, and contextualized by a human or machine so that it possess relevance and purpose.

Information is filtered data that has been made systematic and useful, and is considered to be more reliable and valuable to researchers as proper analysis and refinement has been conducted. A DBMS is concerned with the manipulation of data in a database.

Difference Between Data Models in DBMS[]

A data model is an abstract model that organizes elements of data, documents the way data is stored and retrieved, standardizes how different data elements relate to one another and to the properties of real-world entities, and designs the responses needed for information system requirements. There are three main types of DBMS data models: relational, network, and hierarchical.

  • Relational data model: Data is organized as logically independent tables.
  • Network data model: All entities are organized in graphical representations.
  • Hierarchical data model: Data is organized into a tree-like structure.

Other data models include entity-relationship, record base, object-oriented, object relation, semi-structured, associative, context, and flat data models. Database system architecture in DBMS is categorized as either single tier, in which the DBMS is the only entity where the user directly sits on the DBMS and uses it, or multi-tier, in which nearly all components are independent and can be changed independently.

Features of Distributed Database Management System[]

A distributed database is a collection of related data in multiple interconnected databases that are logically interrelated, but physically stored across multiple physical locations. Distributed databases are categorized as either homogeneous, in which all the physical locations use the same hardware and run the same operating systems and applications, or heterogeneous, in which each location may have different data, software, and hardware structures.

A distributed database management system (DDBMS) refers to a centralized application that functions to create and manipulate distributed databases, synchronize the database at regular intervals and provide transparent access mechanisms to the user, ensure universal application of data modifications, maintain data security and integrity of the database, can be accessed by several users simultaneously, and is used in applications that process large volumes of data.

How is a DBMS Different from a Traditional File System?[]

A traditional filing system refers to early endeavors to computerize the manual filing system. File-based systems typically use storage devices such as a CD-ROM or hard disk to store and organize computer files and the data within with the goal of facilitating easy access.

A traditional file system is inexpensive, ideal for a small system with smaller quantity of parts, very low design efforts, isolated data, and has a simple backup system, but is not secure, has a lack of flexibility and many limitations, and has integrity flaws.

The benefits of DBMS over a traditional file system include: good for large systems, data-sharable, flexible, has data integrity, and has a complex backup system. DBMS data security requirements leverage the use of masking, tokenization, encryption, access control lists, permissions, firewalls, and virtual private networks, making data storage and querying in DBMS a far more secure option than in a traditional file system.

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